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<text class="heading1" id="1">Bolts in Sydney Sandstone</text><text id="13" class="heading3">Carrot Bolts</text>

<text class="intro" id="2">The original bolt used in Australia was a filed-down machine bolt hammered into an undersized hole. These bolts are referred to as 'carrots' as the prepared bolt resembles Bugs Bunny's favourite snack. </text><text id="20" class="intro">You bring your own bolt plate which slips over the bolt before clipping a quickdraw. You can purchase bolt plates from any outdoor gear store in Australia that sells climbing gear. Note that a bolt plate has a small hole and a larger hole, it is essential that the small hole goes over the bolt shaft and you clip your carabiner into the larger hole. Done the other way around it usually comes off as soon as you hit the crux. Also, you should also only use FAT carabiners, as skinny carabiners like the Petzl Spirit or ANY WIRE GATE carabiner are liable to detach themselves if shaken about.

If you're unsure about the suitability of the carabiners on your rack, go to a crag and do your own testing by clipping any carrot bolt within easy reach and shaking the quickdraw about until it either comes off or you have a sore arm.</text><text id="21" class="intro">Climbers normally put their bolt hangers in their chalk bag for easy reach. They can be fiddly to place and it is worth carrying a few spares in case you drop one. Carrot bolts are often used for top belays.</text><text id="23" class="intro">WARNING! Old carrot bolts from the 80's and 90's were usually made of mild steel and are prone to rusting in Sydney's maritime climate. It's fairly difficult to see what's going on under the surface but efforts to remove old carrots during rebolting has shown that generally they are well rusted in, but every so often one of them comes out surprisingly easily!! Climb on them at your own risk, and back up everything where possible. If the bolts on a climb are really looking worn and rusted, don't trust them. The accepted practice around Sydney is to top-rope these routes until they are rebolted.
</text><text id="24" class="intro">Do not lean out on carrot bolts as they have very poor outward strength. </text><image id="6" src="carrot-bolt-300x225.jpg" legend="true" legendTitle="Carrot Bolt" noPrint="true"/><image id="11" src="bolthanger3.jpg" legend="true" legendTitle="Bolt hanger for carrot bolts" noPrint="true"/><text id="14" class="heading3">Good Bolts</text><text id="3" class="intro">The most reliable bolt is a glued-in stainless steel ring bolt or U-bolt, and this is the bolt of choice. Both ring bolts and U-bolts look the same when placed well.</text><image id="26" src="U801.jpg" width="" legend="true" legendTitle="Good U-Bolt" noPrint="true"/><image id="27" src="ring101.jpg" legend="true" legendTitle="Good ring bolt" noPrint="true"/><text id="25" class="intro">If a ring bolt is not well recessed it can be twisted by the carabiner during a fall and break the glue bond. If you can see the "ring" completely out of the rock then it has been placed poorly. There are a number of these at Bangor.</text><text id="19" class="intro">Some old bash-in carrot routes have been re-bolted with new stainless-steel glue-in carrot bolts. You still need a bolt plate to use them but they are considered safe, assuming you put the bolt plate on correctly. One of the attractions of the carrot bolt is they are harder to spot by non-climbers and so suitable for areas where there are potential access issues. You will find the new stainless-steel glue-in carrot bolts at Barrenjoey and Diamond Bay.</text><text id="15" class="heading3">Bad Bolts</text><text id="29" class="intro">The are a variety of masonry bolts around which rely on mechanical expansion. These include dynabolts, trubolts and rawl bolts. Due to the compressive nature of Sydney sandstone these bolts will weaken with successive loads, and due to the rock's permeability to water, the non-stainless steel variety are prone to rust below the surface. These bolts are not considered ideal and are slowly being replaced.

Trubolts (wedge-type anchors) are particularly bad and should not be placed in Sydney sandstone. There has been a fatality due to the use of this type of bolt.</text><text id="18" class="intro">You can identify expansion bolts by the nut on a thread holding the hanger tight against the rock. Some brands have a hexagonal head which makes it easy to confuse with a carrot bolt. If the hanger is free to move then it is likely you are looking at a carrot bolt with a hanger. (Or the expansion bolt is very loose and likely to come out soon!)</text><image id="30" src="trubolt.jpg" legend="true" legendTitle="Dodgy expansion bolt" noPrint="true"/><image id="31" src="FH.jpg" width="" legend="true" legendTitle="Dodgy expansion bolt" noPrint="true"/><text id="16" class="heading3">Rebolting</text><text id="5" class="intro">Replacing old carrots and other dodgy bolts with modern, safe technology is hard work and a thankless task done by a number of community-minded climbers. The Sydney Rockclimbing Club's Access Fund is available to fund the hardware for rebolting. Donations from individuals and businesses are appreciated. So far Mountain Equipment (, Australian Climbing Consultants ( and Climbing Anchors Australia ( have donated to the fund. Please support the businesses that put back into the community and support safer climbing.</text><image id="7" src="badcarrotbolt.jpg" legend="true" legendTitle="Bad carrot" noPrint="true"/><image id="12" src="six_bolt_collage.png" width="300"/>